npm install @solid-primitives/i18n
yarn add @solid-primitives/i18n
pnpm add @solid-primitives/i18n


Library of primitives for providing internationalization support.

#How to use it

The library consists of multiple small and composable primitives that can be used together to create an internationalization solution that fits your needs.

#Defining dictionaries

Dictionary is any plain js object that contains translations for a given language. It can be nested and contain functions.

Dictionaries can be defined in inline in js, or imported from json files.

const en_dict = {
  hello: "hello {{ name }}, how are you?",
  goodbye: (name: string) => `goodbye ${name}`,
  food: {
    meat: "meat",
    fruit: "fruit",

type Dict = typeof en_dict;

const fr_dict: Dict = {
  hello: "bonjour {{ name }}, comment vas-tu ?",
  goodbye: (name: string) => `au revoir ${name}`,
  food: {
    meat: "viande",
    fruit: "fruit",

#With createResource

Example of using @solid-primitives/i18n with createResource to dynamically load directories for selected languages.

import * as i18n from "@solid-primitives/i18n";

Assuming the dictionaries are in the following structure:
And all exports a `dict` object

// use `type` to not include the actual dictionary in the bundle
import type * as en from "./i18n/en.js";

export type Locale = "en" | "fr" | "es";
export type RawDictionary = typeof en.dict;
export type Dictionary = i18n.Flatten<RawDictionary>;

async function fetchDictionary(locale: Locale): Promise<Dictionary> {
  const dict: RawDictionary = (await import(`./i18n/${locale}.ts`)).dict;
  return i18n.flatten(dict); // flatten the dictionary to make all nested keys available top-level

const App: Component = () => {
  const [locale, setLocale] = createSignal<Locale>("en");

  const [dict] = createResource(locale, fetchDictionary);

  dict(); // => Dictionary | undefined
  // (undefined when the dictionary is not loaded yet)

  const t = i18n.translator(dict);

  t("hello"); // => string | undefined

  return (
      <Show when={dict()}>
        {dict => {
          dict(); // => Dictionary (narrowed by Show)

          const t = i18n.translator(dict);

          t("hello"); // => string

          return (
              <p>Current locale: {locale()}</p>
                <button onClick={() => setLocale("en")}>English</button>
                <button onClick={() => setLocale("fr")}>French</button>
                <button onClick={() => setLocale("es")}>Spanish</button>

              <h4>{t("hello", { name: "John" })}</h4>
              <h4>{t("goodbye", { name: "John" })}</h4>

#With initial dictionary

Instead of narrowing the current dictionary with Show, you can also provide an initial dictionary to createResource.

// en dictionary will be included in the bundle
import { dict as en_dict } from "./i18n/en.js";

const [dict] = createResource(locale, fetchDictionary, {
  initialValue: i18n.flatten(en_dict),

dict(); // => Dictionary

#With transitions

Since the dictionary is a resource, you can use solid's transitions when switching the locale.

const [dict] = createResource(locale, fetchDictionary);

const [duringTransition, startTransition] = useTransition();

function switchLocale(locale: Locale) {
  startTransition(() => setLocale(locale));

return (
  <div style={{ opacity: duringTransition() ? 0.5 : 1 }}>
      <App />

#Static dictionaries

If you don't need to load dictionaries dynamically, you can use createMemo instead of createResource.

import * as en from "./i18n/en.js";
import * as fr from "./i18n/fr.js";
import * as es from "./i18n/es.js";

const dictionaries = {
  en: en.dict,
  fr: fr.dict,
  es: es.dict,

const [locale, setLocale] = createSignal<Locale>("en");

const dict = createMemo(() => i18n.flatten(dictionaries[locale()]));

const t = i18n.translator(dict);


Templates are strings that can contain placeholders. Placeholders are defined with double curly braces {{ placeholder }}.

Templates can be resolved by calling resolveTemplate function. e.g.

i18n.resolveTemplate("hello {{ name }}!", { name: "John" }); // => 'hello John!'

By default, the translator function will not resolve templates. You can pass resolveTemplate as the second argument to translator to enable template resolution. Or use a custom template resolver.

const dict = {
  hello: "hello {{ name }}!",

const t1 = i18n.translator(() => dict);

t1("hello", { name: "John" }); // => 'hello {{ name }}!'

const t2 = i18n.translator(() => dict, i18n.resolveTemplate);

t2("hello", { name: "John" }); // => 'hello John!'


Splitting the dictionary into multiple modules can be useful when you have a large dictionary and want to avoid loading the entire dictionary at once.

For example if out app had a separate login and dashboard modules, we could split the dictionary into 3 modules: (common, login and dashboard).


Translations in root.ts would be available in all modules. Translations in login.ts would be available only in login module, and the same for other modules.

// root.ts

const [locale, setLocale] = createSignal<Locale>("en");
const [commonDict] = createResource(locale, fetchCommonDictionary);
const t = i18n.translator(commonDict);

// login/login.ts

const [loginDict] = createResource(locale, fetchLoginDictionary);

// translator only for login module
const loginT = i18n.translator(loginDict);

t("welcome"); // => 'Welcome from common translations!'
loginT("welcome"); // => 'Welcome from login translations!'

Or combine multiple dictionaries into one. While prefixing the keys with the module name.

const combined_dict = createMemo(() => ({
  ...i18n.prefix(commonDict(), "common"),
  ...i18n.prefix(loginDict(), "login"),

const t = i18n.translator(combined_dict);

t("common.welcome"); // => 'Welcome from common translations!'
t("login.welcome"); // => 'Welcome from login translations!'

To scope an existing translator to a module, you can use scopedTranslator.

const dict = {
  "login.username": "User name",
  "login.password": "Password",
  "login.login": "Login",
  // ...

const t = i18n.translator(() => dict);

const loginT = i18n.scopedTranslator(t, "login");

loginT("username"); // => 'User name'

#Nested objects syntax

String paths passesd to the translator don't allow for taking advantage of TypeScript's "Go to definition", and "Find all references", "Rename" features.

If you prefer to use nested objects instead of dot notation, you can use chainedTranslator helper.

It takes a dictionary (not flattened) to map it's shape and a translator function for resolving the translations.

const dict = {
  greetings: {
    hello: "hello {{ name }}!",
    hi: "hi!",
  goodbye: (name: string) => `goodbye ${name}!`,
const flat_dict = i18n.flatten(dict);

const t = i18n.translator(() => flat_dict, i18n.resolveTemplate);

const chained = i18n.chainedTranslator(dict, t);

chained.greetings.hello({ name: "John" }); // => "hello John!"
chained.greetings.hi(); // => "hi!"
chained.goodbye("John"); // => "goodbye John!"

Alternatively you can use proxyTranslator that is implemented using new Proxy so it doesn't require a directory object to be passed as source.

const proxy = i18n.proxyTranslator(t);

proxy.greetings.hello({ name: "John" }); // => "hello John!"
proxy.greetings.hi(); // => "hi!"
proxy.goodbye("John"); // => "goodbye John!"

Using a proxy will have a slight performance impact, so it's recommended to use chainedTranslator if possible. But it can be useful when you don't have access to the dictionary object. Or want to mock the translations in tests.

const proxy = i18n.proxyTranslator(path => path);

proxy.greetings.hello({ name: "John" }); // => "greetings.hello"
proxy.greetings.hi(); // => "greetings.hi"
proxy.goodbye("John"); // => "goodbye"


Live Site

[Live example](https://primitives.solidjs.community | Source code

the i18n package is also being used in solidjs.com, you can see the source code here